Holidays and observances
- Russia Day (Russia)
- Chaco Armistice Day (Paraguay)
- Dia dos Namorados (Brazil)
- Helsinki Day (Finland)
- Independence Day, celebrates the independence of the Philippines from Spain in 1898.
- June 12 Commemoration (Lagos State)
- Loving Day (United States)
- World Day Against Child Labour (International)
816 – Death of Pope Leo III (b. 750)
1099 – Crusade leaders visited the Mount of Olives where they met a hermit who urged them to assault Jerusalem.
1381 – Peasants’ Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath.
1429 – Hundred Years’ War: Joan of Arc leads the French army in their capture of the city and the English commander, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk in the second day of the Battle of Jargeau.
1519 – Birth of Cosimo I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1574)
1550 – The city of Helsinki, Finland (belonging to Sweden at the time) is founded by King Gustav I of Sweden.
1665 – England installs a municipal government in New York City (the former Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam).
1775 – American Revolution: British general Thomas Gage declares martial law in Massachusetts. The British offer a pardon to all colonists who lay down their arms. There would be only two exceptions to the amnesty: Samuel Adams and John Hancock, if captured, were to be hanged.
1776 – The Virginia Declaration of Rights is adopted.
1806 – Birth of John A. Roebling, German-American engineer, designed the Brooklyn Bridge (d. 1869)
1812 – Napoleon’s invasion of Russia began.
1839 – Abner Doubleday created the game of baseball, according to the legend.
1849 – The gas mask was patented by L.P. Haslett.
1890 – Birth of Egon Schiele, Austrian painter (d. 1918)
1897 – Carl Elsener patented his penknife. The object later became known as the Swiss army knife.
1898 – Philippine Declaration of Independence: General Emilio Aguinaldo declares the Philippines’ independence from Spain.
1914 – Birth of Frank K. Kelly, American author and cousin of William F. Nolan (d. 2010 one day short of his 98th birthday)
1916 – Birth of Irwin Allen, American director and producer (d. 1991)
1922 – At Windsor Castle, King George V receives the colours of the six Irish regiments that are to be disbanded – the Royal Irish Regiment, the Connaught Rangers, the South Irish Horse, the Prince of Wales’s Leinster Regiment, the Royal Munster Fusiliers and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
1923 – Harry Houdini, while suspended upside down 40 feet above the ground, escaped from a strait jacket.
1924 – Birth of George H. W. Bush, American lieutenant and politician, 41st President of the United States
1929 – Birth of Anne Frank, German-Dutch author and Holocaust victim (d. 1945)
1930 – Birth of Jim Nabors, American actor and singer
1935 – U.S. Senator Huey Long of Louisiana made the longest speech on Senate record. The speech took 15 1/2 hours and was filled by 150,000 words.
1935 – At age 17, Ella Fitzgerald recorded her first songs. The two songs were “Love and Kisses” and “I’ll Chase the Blues Away.”
1939 – Shooting begins on Paramount Pictures’ Dr. Cyclops, the first horror film photographed in three-strip Technicolor.
1939 – The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum was dedicated in Cooperstown, New York.
1941 – Birth of Chick Corea, American pianist and composer (Chick Corea Elektric Band, Return to Forever, and Five Peace Band)
1941 – Birth of Reg Presley, English singer-songwriter (The Troggs) (d. 2013)
1942 – Anne Frank receives a diary for her thirteenth birthday.
1943 – Holocaust: Germany liquidates the Jewish Ghetto in Brze?any, Poland (now Berezhany, Ukraine). Around 1,180 Jews are led to the city’s old Jewish graveyard and shot.
1943 – Birth of Mark Weiss
1949 – Birth of John Wetton, English singer-songwriter, bass player, and producer (King Crimson, Mogul Thrash, Family, Roxy Music, UK, and Asia)
1951 – Birth of Brad Delp, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Boston RTZ, and Beatlejuice) (d. 2007)
1952 – Birth of Junior Brown, American singer and musician.
1954 – Pope Pius XII canonises Dominic Savio, who was 14 years old at the time of his death, as a saint, making him the youngest unmartyred saint in the Roman Catholic Church.
1957 – Death of Jimmy Dorsey, American saxophonist, composer, and bandleader (The Dorsey Brothers and The California Ramblers) (b. 1904)
1959 – Birth of John Linnell, American singer-songwriter and accordion player (They Might Be Giants and The Mundanes)
1962 – Birth of Grandmaster Dee, American musician (Whodini)
1963 – Death of Medgar Evers, American activist (b. 1925) Civil rights leader Medgar Evers is murdered in front of his home in Jackson, Mississippi by Ku Klux Klan member Byron De La Beckwith.
1963 – “Cleopatra” starring Elizabeth Taylor, Rex Harrison, and Richard Burton premiered at the Rivoli Theatre in New York City
1964 – Anti-apartheid activist and ANC leader Nelson Mandela is sentenced to life in prison for sabotage in South Africa.
1967 – The United States Supreme Court in Loving v. Virginia declares all U.S. state laws which prohibit interracial marriage to be unconstitutional. Loving Day is the commemoration.
1967 – Venera program: Venera 4 is launched (it will become the first space probe to enter another planet’s atmosphere and successfully return data).
1967 – Birth of Mark J. Saxton
1971 – President Richard M. Nixon’s daughter Tricia and Edward F. Cox were married in the White House Rose Garden.
1972 – The fast food restaurant chain Popeyes is founded in Arabi, Louisiana.
1978 – David Berkowitz, the “Son of Sam” killer in New York City, is sentenced to 365 years in prison for six killings.
1979 – Birth of Robyn, Swedish singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer
1981 – “Raiders of the Lost Ark” opened in the U.S.
1982 – Death of Karl von Frisch, Austrian ethologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1886)
1982 – 75,000 people rallied against nuclear weapons in New York City’s Central Park. Jackson Browne, James Taylor, Bruce Springsteen, and Linda Ronstadt were in attendance.
1987 – Cold War: At the Brandenburg Gate U.S. President Ronald Reagan publicly challenges Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall.
1989 – Graceland opened the Elvis Presley Autoland Museum, which contains over 20 cars owned by Presley.
1990 – Russia Day: The parliament of the Russian Federation formally declares its sovereignty.
1991 – Russians elect Boris Yeltsin as the president of the republic.
1993 – An election takes place in Nigeria which and is later annulled by the military Government led by Ibrahim Babangida.
1994 – Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman are murdered outside her home in Los Angeles, California. O.J. Simpson is later acquitted of the killings, but is held liable in wrongful death civil suit.
1994 – The Boeing 777, the world’s largest twinjet, makes its first flight.
1994 – Cab Calloway suffered a stroke from which he never truly recovered from. He died November 18, 1994 at the age 86.
1996 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a panel of federal judges blocks a law against indecency on the internet.
1997 – The U.S. Treasury Department unveiled a new $50 bill meant to be more counterfeit-resistant.
1998 – Compaq Computer paid $9 billion for Digital Equipment Corp. in largest high-tech acquisition.
2003 – Death of Gregory Peck, American actor (b. 1916)
2003 – In Arkansas, Terry Wallis spoke for the first time in nearly 19 years. Wallis had been in a coma since July 13, 1984, after being injured in a car accident.
2008 – A deeply divided Supreme Court ruled that foreign detainees held for years at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba had the right to appeal to U.S. civilian courts to challenge their indefinite imprisonment without charges.
2009 – A disputed presidential election in Iran leads to wide ranging protests in Iran and around the world.
2009 – In the U.S., The switch from analog TV trasmission to digital was completed
2010 – Death of Al Williamson, American illustrator (b. 1931)
???? – Birth of Mike Faricy, American author.